در کشور ما متاسفانه مردم با کتاب ها قهر بوده و به همین سبب سرانه مطالعه بسیار پایین و به اذعان سید عباس صالحی وزیر فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی در برنامه نگاه و در تاریخ 4 شهریور ماه سال گذشته حدود 12 دقیقه و نیم برای کتابخوانی و حدود 20 دقیقه سرانه مطالعه مجلات، روزنامهها و فضای مجازی هم برای هر ایرانی می باشد که در مقایسه با کشورهای پیشرفته دنیا بسیار کم برآورد می شود. به همین منظور خبرگزاری علم و فناوری در فارس تصمیم بر آن دارد که در هر دوشنبه کتاب هایی را برای مخاطبین خود معرفی نماید تا علاقه مندان با چشمانی باز و با آگاهی کتاب های خود را خریداری و مطالعه نمایند، پس هر دوشنبه با ما باشید در " دوشنبه ها با کتاب ".
در هفدهمین هفته دوشنبه ها با کتاب با كتاب " مبانی فناوری اطلاعات" میهمان نظرتان بودیم و در هجدهمین هفته نیز کتابی به زبان انگلیسی با قلم نویسنده ای شیرازی را معرفی می نماییم.
میلاد حضرت مسیح علیهم السلام را نیز به مسیحیان جهان و بخصوص مسيحيان کشورمان تبریک گفته و همچنین پیشاپیش سال ۲۰۲۰ مسیحی را تبریک می گوییم.
مکتوب "معرفی اصول کافی مرحوم کلینی" در ۷۶ صفحه به زبان انگلیسی در سال ۱۳۹۵ توسط دکتر سعید قاضی پور پزشک، ارشد اخلاق اسلامی، دانشجوی دکتری علوم قرآنی و حدیث تالیف شده است.
نویسنده این کتاب را تالیف و به صورت رایگان در اختیار متقاضیان انگلیسی زبان قرار داده است. لازم به ذکر است این کتاب به فارسی نیز توسط همین نویسنده تالیف شده است.
حدیث به عنوان مهم ترین راه دستیابی به سنّت معصومان (علیهم السلام) بیشترین نقش را در استنباط احکام و معارف اسلامی و شکل دهی تفکرات مذاهب اسلامی داشته است. بی شک آنچه امروزه از میراث غنی و گران قدر تفکّر شیعی در حوزه های مختلف فقهی، اعتقادی و اخلاقی در اختیار ماست، مرهون تلاش ها و رنج های عالمان و محدّثان سخت کوشی است که در آثار خود این سرمایه های ارزشمند را ثبت و به نسل های بعدی منتقل ساخته اند. بخش عمده ای از این میراث حدیثی در کتاب هایی ثبت شده است که با نام جوامع حدیثی از آن ها یاد می گردد.
In the Name of God
Introducing the Book "Osoul-e K'aafi"
(The Sufficient Principles) written
Sheikh koleini Raazi
Dr. Saeed Ghazipour
Master of Islamic Ethics
P. H. D Student of the Kuranic Culture and Islamic Tradition (Hadith)
**The Etymology of the Phrase "Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 3
**About Late Koleini 6
1. Sheikh Abou Ja'far Muhammed Ibn – e ya'qoub Ibn-e Ishaaq koleini Raazi 6
2. Late Koleini's Students 9
3. Late Koleini's Books 10
**The Book "Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles)
1. In Praise of the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles)
2. What Motivated Late Koleini to Write the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The sufficient Principles)?
3. The Etymology of the Name of the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" or Why was the Book Named So?
4. Mashaayekh-e Koleini (Those Shiite Scholars Who Have Been Quoted by Late koleini) 15
5. The Biography of Late koleini Himself in the Book "Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 17
6. "Vejaadah" (How to Tolerate (Treat) Traditions (Hadiths) in the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 18
7. The Structure of the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 18
8. The Number of Traditions (Hadiths) in the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 19
9. The Credibility and Reliability of the Book "Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 20
10. Examining the Texts of Traditions (Hadiths) in the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles 21
11. Examining the Documents of Traditions (Hadiths) in the Book "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 23
A. Polluted Documents (The Documents which say: "somebody is quoted by somebody else)
B. Suspended Documents in some Traditions (Hadiths)
C. Similarities in the Documents of Traditions (Hadiths)
D. Unreliability in the Documents of Traditions (Hadiths)
E. Examining the Proofs of the Word "Eddah" (Some People) in the Phrase "Eddah Men Ashaabonaa" (Some of our people) Written by: Late Koleini in the Book “Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles)
12. Source Books Used by Late Koleini in Writing the Book "Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 27
13. The Characteristics of the Book" Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) In Brief 29
14. Identifying the Correct Traditions (Hadiths) in the Book "Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 29
15. Different Versions and Prints of the Book "Osoul-e
Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 31
16. Translations of and Interpretations on the Book “Osoul-e Kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles) 31
The religious and Islamic traditions, that is, the handling down of information, beliefs, and customs by word of mouth or example from one generation to another generation without written instruction, is considered as being the most important means to obtain and achieve the lifestyles, traditions, and ways of the twelve Shiite Innocent Imams (Peace be upon them).
The religious and Islamic traditions, generally speaking, have had the most important role in understanding and perceiving the Islamic orders and culture, as well as in forming, modeling, moulding, and shaping the different beliefs and creeds existing in the religion of Islam. Undoubtedly, what have remained for us from the rich and precious heritage of Shiite thoughts and ways of thinking in different religious, ideological and ethical realms and areas, are sufferings of those hard – working Shiite Scholars and committed traditionalists who, in their precious works, have tried to record these precious traditions and have transmitted these religious and Islamic traditions to the next generations.
A great majority of this heritage of Islamic traditions have been recorded and gathered in books which are traditionally called "Djavaame'-e Hadiths" or "The Comprehensive Books on Islamic Traditions".
From the beginning of the third century (A.H.), Some trends about how to divide Islamic traditions and how to write comprehensive books on Islamic traditions came into being among Shiite scholars and traditionalists.
Following these trends, some books were written by different Shiite scholars. But at the time when the market of teaching and transmitting the Islamic traditions had been hot, no single authentic Islamic clergyman or religious authority was to be found or was available to answer all the Islamic questions and needs which abounded those days. Therefore, the scientific, cultural, and social needs of Islamic circles and associations led the Shiite scholars, from the beginning of the fourth century (A. H.), to teach more comprehensive books on the Islamic traditions. It should also be said that it was the endeavourments and efforts and sufferings of these Shiite scholars which led into the publication of books such as fourfold books on religious issues and, in ideological trend, some books with independent subjects came into being. It is also noteworthy that these published books were written according to the traditions of twelve Shiite Innocent Imams (Peace be upon them). It is also needful to mention that the book "The Sufficient Principles" – (Osoule-e kaafi) which was written by the Shiite Scholar late Koleini is considered as being the most comprehensive and authentic book ever written on Islamic and ideological Shiite traditions.
But, who was really the author of this great book?
What religious position does he occupy among other Shiite scholars and researchers?
What Special characteristics do this great book possess among other Islamic books, distinguishing it from those books written by Shiite scholars?
What is this great book talking about, and how many Islamic Shiite traditions are there in it? Are all the Islamic Shiite traditions mentioned in this great book correct and authentic?
We will answer these questions throughout this book. In the first place, the etymological meaning of the Phrase – the name of the book – "The Sufficient Principles" – (Osoul-e Kaafi) – will be discussed. Then, I will present the respected readers a brief introductory section about late Koleini – the author of the book "The sufficient Principles" – (Osoul-e Kaafi) – and on his great book. And Finally, I will try to answer the above – mentioned questions posed earlier.
It is hoped that this book will be considered a useful book and is used by those who are interested in Islamic – specially – Shiite culture.
Finally, I should express my profound gratitude towards my learned academic, professor Shirazi, from whom I learned a lot.
God bless you all!
Saeed Ghazi Pour
The Etymology of the Phrase "Osoul-e kaafi" (The Sufficient Principles)
Literally, the word "Asl" means "Principle, basis, foundation, or base". Usually, this word is used in contrast with the word" far'" which means "branch" or a branch, or a secondary part which, itself, is considered as being a part of that "Asl" or the primary part, "principle, basis, foundation, or base". Similarly, the Holy Kuran, in the chapter "Ibrahim", verse twenty – Four, says: "کشجره طیبه اصلها ثابت و فرعها فی اسماء"
(It is like a holy, immaculate tree whose roots are fixed and stable, and whose branches are in the sky).
But it should be mentioned here that the word "Asl" (Principle, basis, Foundation, or base) has been defined differently by different Shiite Scholars. For instance, in defining the word "Asl" (Principle, basis, foundation, or base), Muhammed Mahdi Bahr Al –'Oloum writes: "in the terminology of Imamieh Scholars, this word has been defined as an authentic, reliable book which has been adopted or taken from another book".
Also, Vahid Behbahani quotes one of he Islamic Scholars as saying that the word "Asl" (Principle, basis, foundation, base) had been used as a pure and absolute word uttered by the twelve Shiite Innocent Imams (Peace be upon them); this word has, in fact, been one of the twelve Shiite Innocent Imams' (Peace be upon them) clear, flawless, unblemished reasons they wringing to people in introducing Islamic orders and laws. Also, this word has been repeatedly used in the Islamic books written by Shiite Innocent Imams (Peace be upon them). It is noteworthy that the author of this book has, for a long time, researched on this word in the sayings of the twelve Shiite Innocent Imams (Peace be upon them) and has come to the conclusion that the word "Asl" – (Principle, basis, foundation, base) – has got the meaning as defined by the Shiite scholars.
Sheikh Agha Bozorg-e Tehrani, who, among contemporary Shiite scholars has got the most comprehensive research on the word "Asl" – (Principle, basis, foundation, base) – and on clarifying, illuminating, and elucidating narrative "Osoul" (principles), deals with the meaning of this word and proves that there is a conformity between the primary (literal) meaning and the secondary (terminological) meaning of the word "Asl".
His definition of this Arabic word does not have usual problems found in other Shiite scholars' definitions. He writes: "The word "Asl" – (Principle, basis, foundation, base) -, in reality, is a title which is specially used for some books and books collections written on Shiite traditions; whereas, the book Osoul-e kaafi (The Safficient Principles), itself, is about all Shiite tradition's collections. Similarly, some Shiite Scholars have said about this book that: (له کتاب اصلی) (He has got an original book) or (له کتاب وله اصل) (He has a book which is original) یا قال فی کتاب اصله)) (He said in his book which is original) and such and such and so and so. He continues that ascribing the word "Asl" – (Principle, basis, foundation, base) – to some tradition collections is a newly – invented term, and this term – the word "Asl" – is in full conformity with the word's literal (primary), that is, principle, basis, foundation, base. meaning. He discusses that if we presume that a book on Shiite traditions has been written according to the traditions heard from one of the twelve Shiite innocent Imams (Peace be upon them) or the author of such book has written the traditions according to the saying of someone who has directly heard these traditions from the twelve Shiite innocent Imams (peace be upon them), therefore, the author of such book must have a basis, base, or foundation – that is, those traditions said by the innocent Shiite Imams (peace be upon them) – in his own writing. Thus, there must be something prior to his writing, and that is what is called "Asl" or principle, basis, base, or foundation. He discusses that these traditions, directly heard from twelve Shiite the innocent Shiite Imams (peace be upon them), are not secondary parts of other things; they are the basis, the foundation, the base, the principle themselves. That is why they are called "Osoul" or principles, bases, foundations. Another point which the word "Asl" contrasts with the book itself is the issue of separating and dividing the book into different chapters and sections.
In this regard it can be relatively said that in relation to the primary meaning of the word "Osoul" (Principles), dividing the book into chapters and sections has not been influential and important. Therefore, the word "Osoul" (Principles) which had existed at the beginning of Islam, is considered as being the most important four – hundred narrative Shiite principles.
Therefore, it seems that the book "Osoul-e kaafi" and its traditions becamse they have been written according to the direct and exact words and sayings twelve Shiite of the innocent Imams (peace be upon) - are called "Osoul" or "Principles of Sufficiency". Also, it is most likely that this name has been given to late koleini's book after his death. And it is noteworthy that the word "kaafi" (sufficient) has been taken from the approval of the twelfth Imam, His Holiness Mahdi (may God Almighty speed his noble deliverance) about these Islamic principles which are totally sufficient for any Shiite Muslim.
About Late Koleini
1. Sheikh Abou Ja'far Muhammed Ibn-e ya'qoub Ibn-e Ishaaq koleini Razi
This man is considered as being the author of the first book of the fourfold books for the Shiits. He, in his time, was known as "seqat-ol Eslam" – a Muslim man who is trustworthy. He is also considered as being the most well – known religious leader and the most well – known religious historian of the Shiite cult "Imamieh". He was living in the age when the twelfth Imam, His Holiness Mahdi (may God Almighty speed his noble deliverance) was disappeared by God for sixty – nine years (the Minor Absence). No one knows exactly when Koleini was born and where he was born. But existing evidence shows that he probably was born in the late days of the Imamate of the eleventh Imam, His Holiness Imam Hassan Asgari (Peace be upon him) in the year 260 (A.H) or shortly after his death, in a village called "kolein" – located in the south of "Shahr-e Ray", near a place which is now called "Hassan Abad". He passed away in Baghdad in the year 329 (A.H). It has been said that his father, ya'qoub, and his uncle, Allan, also lived in that village mentioned above. We know nothing of his father. But regarding his uncle, as Najjashi explains, he had been considered as being one of the authentic and successful Sheikhs in his own time. It is not exactly clear that where koleini spent his childhood and adolescence. But evidence shows that he had spent his childhood in his own birthplace and after that, he had gone to the city "Qom" to acquire knowledge of his own time. After studying in the presence of religious teachers and Sheikhs in Qom's Theological School, He traveled to other cities and countries to complete what he had already learned. Of the places he traveled to, we can name "Koufeh's" and "Baghdad's" Theological Schools in Iraq, and "Neishabour's" Theological School in his own country, Iran.
After visiting and disputing with the great teachers and religious leaders in these theological schools in Iraq and Neishabour, he returned to his own city, "Rey". Rey Theological School, at that time, was considered as being a newly – established theological school and it was considered as being the second important theological school in Iran, after Qom Theological School. And this was because the city "Rey" was being governed by Sunni khalifs until the late third century (A.H). These Khalifs severely and fanatically prevented the Shiite people to live in the city. In this regard.
هدف از نوشتن كتاب:
هدف از تالیف این کتاب به زبان انگلیسی معرفی منبع فقه شیعه به انگلیسی زبانها مي باشد.
دکتر سعید قاضی پور، پزشک و دکترای الاهیات که قبلا کتابی دیگر با عنوان "بررسی تفسیر عرفانی" را از وي در دوشنبه ها با کتاب، معرفی کرده ایم.
مکتوب حاضر برای دانشجویان علوم قرآنی و علوم حدیث و علوم حوزوی و علاقه مندان به شناخت دانشمندان شیعه می تواند مفید باشد. ارزش این کتاب علاوه بر توضیحات کتاب اصول کافی به زبان فارسی به علت تالیف به زبان انگلیسی ارزش دیگری را ایجاد می نماید زیرا که این کتاب می تواند علاوه بر راهنما برای دانشجویان انگلیسی زبان، نام نویسنده ای از شهر شیراز را در علوم شیعه مطرح سازد.
به گزارش خبرگزاري علم و فناوري؛ علاقه مندان می توانند این کتاب را به طور رایگان از طريق اينجا دانلود نمایند.
از مهرآفرين وثوقي